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Sensor Types

Technical Definitions of Terminology - Honeywell
- Interscan Corporation
Linearity - Micro-Epsilon
Resolution - Micro-Epsilon

Sensor Term Glossary - Futek

Sensors and Automation Glossary -
Glossary - Kavilico
eAutomationPro Glossary - Advantech
Technical Definitions of Terminology - Honeywell
Position Sensor Glossary - ifm effector

ATI Glossary for Robotic End Effectors and Robotic Tooling - ATI
Glossary of Transducer-Related Terms - Applied Measurements Ltd
Transducer Definitions - Sensor Developments Inc.
Glossary of Photoelectric Terms - Banner Engineering
Photoelectirc Glossary of Terms - Sick Inc

Understanding Instrument Specifications - How to Make Sense Out of the Jargon
- NI
Shunt Calculator - Futek
Zero Balance Calculator - Futek
Span Adjustment Calculator - Futek





The Wheatstone Bridge - Sensor Developments Inc.
Cross Talk Compensation Using Matrix Methods
- Sensor Developments Inc.
How to Select the Feedback Device
- J. Mazurkiewicz - Motion Control Online/Baldor Electric
Feedback Devices - J. Mazurkiewicz - Motion Control Online/Baldor Electric
Guide to Sensing - Banner Engineering

Guide to Feedback Devices
- Emerson Industrial Automation
Choose Instrumentation without Sensory Overload - P. Welander - Sept. 2006 - Control Engineering
Introduction to Sensors - C. Williams - University of Exeter
Theory of Operation of Angular Rate Sensors - Crossbow Technology
Potentiometers - Novotechnik

Sensors Reference Center by Machine Design. An oustanding non-vendor specific site offereing a wealth of sensor information, articles, and a supplier directory. Topics include magnetic sensing, proximity sensors, optical shaft encoders, linear encoders, light sensors, accelerometers, and much more.

Fundamentals of Sensing Training Manual by Allen Bradley. A thorough discussion of presence sesing components including limit switches and proximity sensors, including application basics, charcteristics, and specifications

Piezotronics Technical Information by PCB Piezotronics. A site detoted to how piezotronic sensors work! Articles cover general piezotronic theory, piezotronic pressure sensors, force sensors, and accelerometers, with additional articles covering specific issues.

Sensors: Limit, Proximity and Photoelectric - Eaton - Accompanying exam

Introduction to General Piezoelectric Pressure - Davidson Measurement
Sensing Colour - Allen Bradley
Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducers - SensComp
Selection and Use of Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducers - SensComp
Load, Force, and Torque Measurements - National Instruments

The Wheatstone Bridge - A. Brendel - Sensor Developments Inc.
Temperature Effects on Transducers - A. Brendel - Sensor Developments Inc.
Frequency Response of Sensors - A. Brendel - Sensor Developments Inc.
Overload Protection in Electronic Weighing Systems - A. Brendel - Sensor Developments Inc.
Piezoelectric Force Transducers, Design & Use - Kistler

The Principles of Acceleration, Shock, and Vibration Sensors - Sensors Online - May 2005
Ways to Measure the Force Acting on a Rotating Shaft - Honeywell
The Piezoelectric Effect, Theory, Design and Usage - Kistler
Photoionization Detectors - RAE


Transducer Electronic Datasheet (TEDS)
IEEE 1451.4 (TEDS) - As viewed from a sensor manufacturer - Sensor Developments Inc.
The sensors plug & play revolution has begun - B. Betts - Design Product News
What is Happening in the World of TEDS? - Bruel & Kjaer

Building Plug-and-Play Networked Smart Transducers - R. Johnson - Electronics Development Corp/Sensors
Smart Sensors & IEEE 1451 - Nov. 2006 - Electronic Design
A Framework for Smart Transducer Interface Systems - M. Schiefer & M. Lally - The Modal Shop
TEDS - Honeywell

Sensors Plug & Play - National Instruments
IEEE 1451.4 Sensor Templates Overview - National Instruments
Upgrading Your System for Virtual TEDS -National Instruments
TEDS IEEE 1451.4 Plug and Play Smart Sensors - Transducer Techniques
How can IEEE 1451 be applied? - NIST



Piezoelectric Accelerometers - Sensors Online February 2004
Piezoelectric accelerometers - MMF
The Economics of Accuracy
- Vibra-Metrics
Types of Accelerometers - National Instruments
Accelerometer Principles - National Instruments

Accelerometer Application Note - Crossbow Technology
Introduction to Accelerometers - Omega
Accelerometer Glossary of Terms - Honeywell
Accelerometer Fundamentals - Memsic
Inclination Sensing with Thermal Accelerometers - Memsic

Selecting and Installing Accelerometers - IMI Sensors
Accelerometer Mounting Techniques - IMI Sensors
Mems Sensor Terminology: Accelerometers & Inclinometers
Inclinometers - Kionix
Interactive Design Tools: Accelerometers : ADXL202 Calculator - Analog Devices
A Beginners Guide to Accelerometers - Dimensions Engineering

Accelerometers and How they Work - Texas Instruments
Getting Started with an Accelerometer - Parallax Inc.
Types of Accelerometers - C. Johnson - National Instruments/ Process Control Instrumentation Technology, Prentice Hall PTR
About Accelerometers - GlobalSpec
Accelerometer - Wikipedia

Technology Report - Silicon Designs Inc
Accelerometer Technical Notes (and more) - Wilconox
Introduction to Piezoelectric Accelerometers - Davidson Measurement
Selecting & Installing Accelerometers - Davidson Measurement
Trouble Shooting Industrial Accelerometer Installations - Cole Parmer
Mounting Techniques - Davidson Measurement


Capacitance Sensors

Capacitive Sensor Operation and Optimization - Lion Precision
RF/Capacitance Level Instrumentation - Omega
Conductive Material Thickness Measurment with Capacitive Sensors - Lion Precision
Building a reliable capacitive-sensor - Planet Analog
The Capacitive Sensor - Sensorland

Capacitive Sensing Explained - PPS
About Proximity Sensors, Capacitive - Global Spec
Capacitance Sensors for Human Interfaces to Electronic Equipment - Analog Devices
Playing the E-Field: Capacitance Sensors in Action -Sensors Magazine
Density Sensors

In Control: Density Measurement, Theory and Practice
- D. Capano - DTS/Water & Wastewater
About Density and Specific Gravity Instruments - Global Spec
About density and specific gravity measurement - Anton Parr
Piezoelectric Resonator for Determining Density and Sound Velocity of Liquids - Technische Universitat Wien
Density - Wikipedia
Coriolis Density Operating Principle - Emerson Process Management
Microwave Density Instrument -Toshiba
Slury Density Measurement
Density - specific gravity cups & picnometers - Elcometer
Micro Motion Series 7835 Densitometer - Emerson Process
Able Nuceonic Density Measurement Gauge - Able




Displacement Sensors

MicroFiber Optic Lever Displacement Transducers: Principles, Improvements, and Applications - MTI

Laser Interferometer - Canon
Laser Interferometer - Canon
Displacement Sensors Overview -
Product Category Results for displacement sensor - Global Spec
Fiber Optic Lever Displacement Transducers - MTI

Fiber Optic Sensors - Omron
Resources on laser measuring sensor technology - Acuity
Semiconductor laser displacement sensors and meters - Keyence
Capacitive/Eddy-Current Sensors Comparison - Lion Precision
Capacitive Displacement Sensor -

The Evolution of Proximity, Displacement, and Position Sensing - S. Prosser (Schaevitz Sensors) - Sensors Online
Linear Position Transducer - UniMeasure
Selecting Position Transducers: How to Choose Among Displacement Sensor Technologies - Space Age Control
Advances in Analog Distance Sensing - Sensors Online B. Duval/Baumer Electric

See also Hall Effect, Laser, LVDTs, Position, & Proximity


Laser Displacement Sensors

Glossary of laser sensor terminology - Acuity
Laser Technnology Glossary - Keyence
Principles of Measurement of Laser Sensors - Acuity
Laser triangulation - Micro-Epsilon
CCD Technology - GlobalSpec/Micro-Epsilon
Laser Displacement Sensors - Electronics Manufacturers



Fibre Optic Sensors
The Fibre Optical Sensors - Sensorland
Optical Fibre Sensors... The Other Optical Revolution - Colin Fitzpatrick - University of Limrick
Introduction to Fibre Optic Temperature Sensors - Capgo
Measuring with Light Part 2: Fiber-Optic Sensing—From Theory to Practice - P. Fuhr, Apprion Inc. - Sensors
Fibre Optic Sensors - Cochin University of Science & Technology
Fibre optics to conquer undersea exploration -
Sensitive Chemical Optical Sensor UsingBirefringent Pourous Glass for the Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds - Fiso
Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber - Fiso
Temperature and pressure fiber optic sensors applied to minimally invasive diagnostics and therapies - Fiso
Fiber Optic Thermometer Vendors -
An Introduction to Fiber-Optic Sensors - Sensors
Fibre Optic Sensor Technology - ISIS Canada
Field Assessment of Fibre-Optic Bragg Grating Strain Sensors in the Confederation Bridge - NRC
  Flame Detection  

Guide to Flame Detector Selection - Scott Health & Safety
Flame Safegaurd Controls in a Multi-Burner Environments
- FireEye
Service Manual for Flame Safeguard and Combustion Controls - FireEye
Flame Ionizaton Detector - SRI Instruments
Flame Photometric Detector - SRI Instruments

Photo Ionization Detector - SRI Instruments
Reduction Gas Detector - SRI Instruments
What is Flaring?
- Rapid Flare Notification
Critical Flare Components - MRW Technologies
Guidelines for Monitoring Enclosed Landfill Gas Flares
- Environment Agency UK - (See Appendix F)


Force Sensors

Sensors: Force - Engineer's Handbook
Introduction to Force Sensors - Sensorland/PCB piezeotronics
Force, Acceleration, & Torque - Omega
Introduction to Piezoelectric Force Sensors - PCB Piezotronics

About Force and Load Sensors - GlobalSpec
Force Sensing Resistors - W. Putman/B. Knapp - Stanford University
Technical Info - Sensor Developments Inc
Capacitive Force Sensing - Synaptics
Intelligent Force Sensors using Standard CMOS Technologies - Fraunhofer
  Hall Effect  


Unipolar Hall-Effect Sensors - Allegro
Understanding Bi-Polar Hall Effect Sensors - Allegro
Hall Effect IC Applications Guide - Allegro

How do Hall effect transducers work? - Scientific American
Hall Effect - HyperPhysics - C.R. Nave - Georgia State University

Hall Effect Sensing and Application - Honeywell Micro Switch
The Hall Effect - Prof. Dr. Helmut Föll & Dr. J. Carstensen - Technische Fakultat Der Christian-Albrechts-Unversitat Zu Kiel
Understanding Bipolar Hall Effect Sensors - J. Gilbert - Allegro
Hall Effect In Semiconductors - S. Kasap - University of Saskatchewan
Magnetic Sensor - John Sutherland - Michigan Technological University


Water Activity: Definition & Applications
Web HumiCalc - Thunder Scientific

Relative Humidity Calculator - Carnegie Institution of Washington
Moisture/Humidity Conversions - GE Sensing
Vapor Pressure of Water - GE Sensing
Humidity Expressed as Dewpoint Temperature - Cole Parmer
Humidity and Water Activity Measurement: Reference Material - Rotronic

Humidity Sensors: Theory and Operaton - Honeywell
Why Chilled Mirror Hygrometers are Inherently Reliable - Buck Research Measurements
Measuring Moisture in Petroleum Products - Cosa Instrument
Humidity Measurement Technology - Testo Inc.
Solving Humidity Calibration Challenges In Today's Metrology Lab - J. Bennewitz - Thunder Scientific



What is an LVDT - Macro Sensors
An Introduction to the LVDT - Techkor Instrumentation
What is an LVDT - Sensorex
How LVDT Works - Singer Instruments
How LVDTs Operate - Applied Measurements
LVDT Principle of Operation - RDP Group

LVDT Introduction - eFunda
LVDT: How They Work - Sensorland
LVDT Fundamentals - National Instruments
Linear Variable Differential Transformers - Kavilico

LVDT's: How They Work - Daytronic
LVDT/RVDT/Resolver Measurements - National Instruments
LVDT - Engineer's Edge
Introduction to LVDT: Basic Principles - Singer Instruments
How LVDT Works - Singer Instruments
About Linear Position Sensors, LVDT - GlobalSpec



Back in Style: Magnetostrictive Sensors - Southwest Research Institure
Magnetostrictive actuators - S. Ashley - Mechanical Engineering
Magnetostriction - Etrema
Magnetostriction - Wikipedia
Giant Magnetostrictive Materials - SMARTsite
Magnetostrictive Linear Position Sensors - MTS Sensors


  Magnetostrictive Sensor Manufacturers  
WayCon Positionsmesstechnik
Add your company here
Position Sensors

Encoders - BEI
Sensors: Linear / Angular Position
- Engineer's Handbook
A Fluorescent Long-Line Fiber-Optic Position Sensor - J. Weiss - Sensors Online

Position Transducers - Hydraulics and Pneumatics
Glossary of Encoder Terms -Renco
Optical Encoders - Analog Devices
Encoder Basics - Industrial Electrical & Maintenance
How do Absolute Encoders work? - Industrial Electrical & Maintenance

What Is A Resolver? - AMCI
Understanding Resolvers - Admotec
Quadrature Encoders - Control Technology Corp.
The Basics of Optical Encoders - Penn Engineering
Applying Encoder Communications to Your Design - Danaher

Encoder vs. Resolver-Based Servo Systems - Ormec
Selecting Position Transducers: How to Choose Among Displacement Sensor Technologies - Space Age Control
Understanding Quadrature - Gurley Precision Instruments
Lets Talk Accuracy - Gurley Precision Instruments - G. Gordon

Displacement Sensors - Pradosh - A well written, illustrated turorial covering, capacitive displacement sensors, LVDT’s, RVDT’s, eddy current transducers, magentostrictive sensors, fotonic sensors, and laser triangulation sensors authored by an engineering student from India.
Square Waves and Pulses: A Clarification - Gurley Precision Instruments/Measurements and Control -G. Gordon


Draw Wire Positon Sensor courtesy WayCon Positionsmesstechnik
Position Sensor Manufacturers
WayCon Positionsmesstechnik
Add your company here

Proximity Sensors

Considerations when using Eddy Current Proximity Probes for Overspeed Protection Applications - Bentley Nevada

Proximity Switch Technical Glossary - Contrinex
Sensors: Proximity - Engineer's Handbook
Ultrasonic Sensing Fundamentals -Schneider Electric
Clear Object Detection Using Photelectric Sensors -Allen Bradley
Basics of Diffuse Sensing - Allen Bradley

Navigating the Maze of Proxmity Sensor Selection - Allen Bradley
Capacitive Proximity Sensors Come of Age - Allen Bradley
How Capacitive Sensors Work and How to Use Them Effectively - Lion Precison
Capacitive Sensor Error Sources - Lion Precision
Capacitive Sensors and Ungrounded Targets - Lion Precison


Proximity Sensor Manufacturers
WayCon Positionsmesstechnik

Add your company here

Radiation Monitors

Glossary - Atomic Energy of Canada
Glossary - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Radiation Detection Overview - MSA
Dictionary of Nuclear Related Terms - Arrow Tech
Radiation Definitions - Meter Conversions Inc.
Units of Radiation Measurement - Meter Conversions Inc.

Alpha, Beta, & Gamma Particles - Meter Conversions Inc.
The Geiger Counter - NASA
Geiger counter - Wikepedia
About Geigers - Mineralab
The Scintillation Counting Process - Crump Institute
Scintillators as Gamma-ray Detectors - NASA

Scintillation Counters - University of Sheffield
Gamma and X-Ray Detection - Canberra
Detectors - Berkeley Lab
Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions - M. Berger, J. Coursey, M. Zucker, J. Chang - NIST
X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Data -NIST


Strain Gauge

Load Cell Types - Futek
Load Cell Selection Guide & Tips - Futek
Load Cell Terminology -Transducer Techniques
Strain Gage Selection - Davidson Measurement
Strain Gage Rosettes - Davidson Measurement
Optimizing Strain Gage Excitation Levels - Davidson Measurement

Errors due to Transverse Sensitivity in Strain Gages - Davidson Measurement
Strain Gage Temperature Effects - Davidson Measurement
Fatigue of Strain Gages - Davidson Measurement
Strain Gauge Misalignment Errors - Davidson Measurement
An Introduction to the Resistive Strain Gauge - Techkor Instrumentation

Short Guide to Strain Gauging Methods - N. Gittins - HBM
Strain Sensor Basics and Signal Conditioning Tips by J.Gyorki, Iotech, Inc. in Sensors Magazine. A discussion of strain gauge basics including circuits, heating, signal conditioning, calibration, and applications.
Strain and Stress - National Instruments
Strain Gauge Configuration Types - National Instruments
Strain Measurements - National Instruments

Introduction to Load Cells - Omega
Selecting a Strain Gage - NMB Technologies
Interactive Guide to Strain Gage Technology - Vishay
Strain Gage Technology - Glossary - Vishay
Strain Gage Calculators - Vishay
Half Bridge Calculator - Engineer's Edge

Stain Gage Tables - Vishay
The Strain Gage - Omega
Measuring Strain with Strain Gauges - National Instruments
Choosing the Right Strain-Gauge for Your Application - National Instruments
Strain Rosette for Strain Measurement -efunda

Electrical Resistance Strain Gage Ciricuits - Georgia Tech College of Engineering
Strain Gage Load Cells -Daytronic
About Strain Gages - GlobalSpec
Introduction to Strain Gages - Dr. E. J. Mastascusa - Bucknell University
Introduction to Strain Measurement - Acromag


Torque Sensors

- Sensor Developments Inc.
Torque Converter - Sensor technology
Torque Units Conversion Calculator - Magtrol
Conversion Tables - Sensor Developments Inc.
The Basics of Torque Measurment - D. Schrand - Sensor Developments Inc.
Choosing the Right Torque Sensor - S. Himmelstein and Company
Frequently Asked Torque Sensor Questions - Honeywell Sensotec
About Torque Sensors - Globalspec


Velocity Sensors

Velocity Transducer Installation - STI
About Velocity Sensors, Linear - Global Spec
About Speed Sensors, Magnetic - Global Spec

Laser Doppler Velocity sensor - Canon
Analog VLSI Sensor Using the Gradient Method - California Institue of Technology
Covelia, A Correlation Sonar Velocity Sensor - Chelsea Technologies
Velocity Flow Meter for Open Channels and Pipes - Greyline Instruments
Measuring Air Velocity Basics - JLC International

LVDT Velocity Sensor Demo Illustration - Trans-Tek
Theoretical and experimental investigations of a wide-range thermal velocity sensor - IOP Electronic Journals
Angular Velocity Sensor - Murata Manufacturing
Springless Low Distortion Velocity Sensor - IRIS


Vibration Sensors

Vibration Glossary - Vibration Institute
Vibration Measurement Standards - MMF
Vibration Measurement & Analysis - Bruel & Kjear
Vibration Transducers and Signal Conditioning - Bruel & Kjear
About Vibration Sensors - Global Spec
Vibration Sensor Selection Guide - Cole-Parmer

Vibration Calculator - Wilcoxon
FREE Vibration Calculator -Sensorland
Vibration Transducer Overview - DLI Watchman
Vibration Sensor Characteristics - Davidson Measurement
Vibrometry Basics - Polytec

Cable & Signal Loss - Davidson Measurement
Waveguide sensor spots vibration -
Optical fiber polarimetric vibration sensor - CNRS
Good vibrations! - Connecting Industry
Introduction to Vibration Measurement - Techkor



Common Viscometer Terms
-Cole Parmer
Viscosity - Graco Liquid Control
Measuring Viscosity with a Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor - Sensors Online
- The Physics Hypertextbook - G. Elert
Viscosity - Wikipedia
Viscosity - Transtronics

Viscous Fluid Behavior - Cole Parmer
Viscosity Values and Specific Gravity - Cole Parmer
About Viscometers - ISA
Viscosity - Medien Stuttgart
About Viscometers - GlobalSpec



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