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Control System Fundamentals
by Athena. A well illustrated article describing a basic temperature control system including details on temperature sensors, control modes, and final control devices.

Basics of Temperature - B. Lynds - Unidata
Beginners Guide to Temperature Measurement - National Physical Laboratory
Definition of Temperature - Peak Sensors




Heater Controls Glossary - Gaumer
Thermal System Glossary -Chromalox
Glossary of Terms - Exergen
Infrared Technological Terms - Raytek
Commonly used terms in Heating Sensing and Controlling - Watlow
Temperature Measurement and Control Glossary - Omega
Engineering Units in the Process Heating Workplace - Eurotherm/Arthur Holland
Glossary - Omega
Glossary - Weed Instrument
Glossary - Honeywell


Tools, Tables, and Calculators

Temperature Conversion Table
- Smar
Temperature Convertor
- 1728 Software Systems
Temperature Convertor - Temperature World
Unit Calculator - Minco


Temperature Control


Temperature Control - Burkert Fluid Control
Industrial Temperature Primer - Wilkerson Instrument Co. - Tim Montgomery
Identifying and Correcting Temperature Control Problems - McGoff-Bethune/Barber Coleman
SCR Power Theory Training Manual - Chromalox




Temperature Measurement - K. Muldrew - University of Calgary,
Why Use Temperature Transmitters?
- Process West / September 2007 - Reasons why you should consider using a temperature transmitter
Temperature Regulators - Samson

Specifying Temperature Sensors in Hazardous Areas
- Smart Sensors
Selection Criteria for Self Powered Thermometers - Aug. 2006 - Flow Control Network
Measuring Temperature with an RTD or Thermistor - National Instruments
Evaluating Sensor Placement In A Thermal System - Watlow
Temperature Sensors - Watlow

Control System Selecton Guidelines -Chromalox
Temperature Instrument Ranges - Cole Parmer
Getting a Handle on Temperature - Cole Parmer
Temperature Calibration in Industrial Processes - B. Morris- Hart Scientific/Cole Parmer
Temperature Switch Design Principles - Custom Control Sensors
Sensor selection 101:Optimal temperature sensor selection - C. Swanson - Control Engineering

Understanding Temperature Measurements - Keithly
Tips for Temperature Testing - Keithley - D. Cigoy
Temperature Measurement Applications in Power Plants - ControlGlobal/Endress + Hauser - May 2005 - R. Jethra - Application of RTD's and thermocouples.
Comparison of Widely Used Temperature Sensing Technologies - Sensor Scientific

Introduction to Temperature Measurement - Omega
Comparing Thermocouples, RTD's, Thermistors and Infrared - Peak Sensors
Comparison of Thermocouples, RTDs and Thermistors - Watlow
Application Note - RTD Thermocouple or Thermistor - MicroDAQ
Temperature Scales and Classifications of Thermometers - Sensorland

Thermocouples, Thermistors, and RTDs - Sensor Scientific
Thermocouple or RTD - Thermo Electric
Design Guide - A discussion of key issues to consider when designing a temperature sensor - Peak Sensors
Temperature Sensor Selection - Thermometrics

Recent Advances in Temperature Sensors - Thermo Electric
Why Use Temperature Transmitter - Moore
Temperature Technical Information - Peak Sensors
Comparison of Temperature Sensors and Response Times - Nanmac
Temperature Gradients and Sensors - Nanmac
Eliminate Temperature Coefficients Caused by Conduction - Nanmac




Thermocouple Technical Letters - Heaton

Thermocouple Theory - Smart Sensors
Thermocouple Specification Criteria - Smart Sensors
Fooled by a thermocouple: Temperature sensing gone awry - K. Whiteleather - EDN
Temperature Measurement – A Solution to Type-K Virtual Junction Problems / D. Barberree - Industrial Heating / Jan. 2007 - A discussion of how virtual junctions can create errors in thermocouple readings.

What is a Thermocouple? - HiTekCorp
An Introduction to the Thermocouple - Techkor Instrumentation
Thermocouples Join Forces - J. Titus - Design News
Grounded or Ungrounded Thermocouple Sensor - Watlow

Thermocouple Reference -Madison
Thermocouple Types
- Georgia Oven Company
How Thermocouples Work - National Plastics Heater Sensor & Controls
Thermocouple Reference Information - Megatron
Thermocouples - Thermotech USA

Thermocouple Measurement - Linear Technology
Thermocouples & Thermocouple Wire - D. Ripple - NIST
Principles of the Thermocouple - Heise
Thermocouple Fundamentals - R. Park - Marlin Mfg/ECE Fast
Taking Thermocouple Temperature Measurements - National Instruments

Thermocouple Wire - Omega
The Thermocouple Temperature Sensor - Dr. E. J. Mastascusa - Bucknell University
Thermocouple Tables - NIST
The Secret to Thermocouples - Mind the Metallurgy, and All Else Will Follow - Keithley - M. Bayda

Notes on Using Thermocouples - An excellent application guide - Dr. R. Moffat, Stanford University
Thermocouple Application Note - Pico
Introduction to Thermocouples - Omega
Thermocouple Technical Reference Data - ISE Inc
Thermocouple Types - Watlow

Other Types of Thermocouples - Thermo Electric
10 Tips to Ensure Accurate Temperature Measurement - GlobalSpec
Installation, Operation and Maintenance for Thermocouples - Wika
Thermocouples, How they work - Sensorland
Thermocouple Selection Guide
- Cole Parmer

Thermocouple Reference - Madison Company
Series and Parallel Thermocouple Measurements - Thermo Electric
Thermocouples in Furnaces and Ovens - How to Install thermocouples in furnaces to minimize errors - Nanmac
Helping Thermocouples do the Job - Thermo Electric
Thermocouple Materials - Thermo Electric

Thermocouple Basics - Peak Sensors (Based on UK Standards)
Improving Operating Efficiency Through the Use of Stabilized Thermocouples - Thermo Electric
Thermocouple Temperature/Voltage Tables - NIST
Introduction to Thermocouples - Dataforth

Generate Thermocouple Millivolt Tables - Minco
Type J & K Thermocouple Conversion Table - Wika
Thermocouples and Extension Grade Wire
- Nanmac
Practical Thermocouple Temperature Measurements - Dataforth
Introduction to Thermocouples - Dataforth



RTD vs.Thermocouple Comparison Chart - Weed Instrument
Choosing the Right Temperature Sensor (Thermocouples vs RTDs)
- Smart Sensors
Specifying RTDs - Smart Sensors
PT100 to Temperature Conversion Table - SearchEng
RTD Instrumentation Requirements
- Keithley - T. Hayden/J. Roop

RTD Overview - Airpax
What is an RTD? - Omega
RTD's: Thermocouple Alternative for Precise, Repeatable Temperature Measurements - Keithley
Installation, Operation, and Maintenance for RTDs - Wika
RTDs, Theory and Standards -Thermometrics

RTD Signal Accuracy -Thermometrics
Resistance Thermometers (RTDs) - Peak Sensors

Resistance Temperature Detector - Dataforth
RTD Transmitter Matching - Wika

Standard Tolerances for RTDs - Wika
Accuracy Standards - Thermometrics
Generate RTD Temperature/Resistance Tables - Minco
RTD Conversion Tables - Wika





Measuring Temperature with an RTD or Thermistor - NI
Wringing out thermistor nonlinearities - B. Baker - EDN
What are Thermistors? - WiseGEEK

NTC Thermistor Application Notes - Ametherm
Thermistors - Data Acquistion Web

The Thermistor Temperature Sensor - Dr. E. J. Mastascusa - Bucknell University
What is a Thermistor - General Electric
NTC Thermistors - General Electric

PTC Thermistors - General Electric
SMT Power Thermistors - General Electric/Keystone Thermometrics
Thermistors - Peak Sensors
Thermistors - Omega
Thermistor Overview - Airpax




Thermowell and Protection Tube Specifications - Smart Sensor
Thermowells: Why They Fail - Smart Sensors
Thermowell Specification Form
- Wika

Shot Peening - Wika
How to Select Thermowells - Thermo Electric

Metallic Thermowell Materials - Thermo Electric
Thermowell Material Selection Guide - Thermo Electric
Thermowell Velocity Considerations - Thermo Electric
Non-Metallic Thermowell Protection Materials - Thermo Electric
Protection Sheaths and Housings - Peak Sensors



Questions and Answers about Infrared Thermometry -Transcat
About Infrared
- Hawk
Temperature Measurement with Radiation Thermometers - Land
A Basic Guide to Thermography
- Land

Frequently Asked Questions: Non-contact - IRCON
Infrared Thermometers: Theory and Construction - Mikron/Holan Engineering
Temperature Measurements with Radiation Thermometers - Land Instruments
A Basic Guide to Thermography - Land Instruments
Application of Single Colour vs 2 Colour Infrared Temperature Measurement - Mikron

Advantages of Non-contact Thermometers - Illawarra
Advancements in Temperature: Infrared Technology - Cole Parmer
Through The Looking Glass (Emissivity) - Exergen
Introduction to Infrared Thermometers - Omega
Welcome to the Emissivity Trail -
Emissivity Table - Exergen

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors -
Table of Total Emmissivity - Newport
The Fundamentals of Infrared Temperature Measurement - Pyrometer Instrument Company
Solving the Emissivity Problem in Real World Infrared Thermometer Temperature Measurements - Pyrometer Instrument Company

Transactions: Non-Contact Temperature Measurement - Omega
Infrared Temperature Sensors, How They Work - Sensorland
Infrared Temperature Sensors - Peak Sensors
Principles of Non-contact Measurement - Raytek
Thermal Sensor Technology - Infrared Solutions
Infrared Basics - Infrared Solutions
Non-Contact Temperature Sensing - Eurotherm/Arthur Holland




Bimetal Thermostats - Airpax


Solid State


Tiny Temperature Sensors for Portable Applications - National Semiconductor
The LM35 - An Integrated Circuit Temperature Sensor - Dr. E. J. Mastascusa - Bucknell University
LM34/LM35 Precision Monolithic Temperature Sensors - National Semiconductor


Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors
Introduction to Fibre Optic Temperature Sensors - Capgo
Silicon-Etalon Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor
- G. Behiem - NASA
Fabry-Perot Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor -NASA
A Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor
- J. Stokes and G. Palmer - IPITEK/Sensors Magazine
Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor for PEM Fuel Cells - US Dept. of Energy





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